Tubo-ovarian abscess

Background

Risk factors

  • Multiple sex partners
  • Age 15-25 years old
  • Prior history of PID
  • IUD (within 21 days of insertion[1])
  • HIV infection

Clinical Features

  • +/-Fever
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Dyspareunia
  • Disproportionate unilateral adnexal tenderness or adnexal mass or fullness
  • Suspect in patient who does not respond after 72hr of treatment for PID

Differential Diagnosis

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic origin

Abdominal origin

Evaluation

Dilated, complex, fluid-filled tubular structure is consistent with hydro/pyosalpinx (A, B). Short-axis image (C) demonstrates the “cog-wheel” pattern of the endosalpingeal folds, indicative of tubal inflammation in pelvic inflammatory disease with a pyosalpinx or a hydrosalpinx. (arrows).
  • CBC
  • ESR/CRP
  • Transvaginal pelvic ultrasound (Sn 75-82%)
  • CT pelvis (Sn 78-100%) - preferred in patients in whom associated GI pathology must be excluded

Management

Operative Drainage

  • OB/GYN consult for possible operative drainage
  • Majority (60-80%) resolve with antibiotics alone
  • Predictors of antibiotic treatment failure and possible indications for IR drainage upon admission to Ob[4]
    • WBC > 16,000
    • TOA size > 5.2 cm

Antibiotics

  • No sexual activity for 2 weeks;
  • Treat all partners who had sex with patient during previous 60 days prior to symptom onset

Outpatient Antibiotic Options

Inpatient Antibiotic Options

Disposition

  • Decision should be made in conjunction with gynecological colleague
  • Patient with fevers, elevated WBC, abscess greater than 5 cm, or systemic toxicity demand admission
  • Hemodynamically stable, afebrile patients with a relatively small abscess can be safely discharged with close gynecological follow up on antibiotics

See Also

References

  1. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/pid.htm
  2. Norris DL, Young JD. UTI. EM Clin N Am. 2008; 26:413-30.
  3. Norris DL, Young JD. UTI. EM Clin N Am. 2008; 26:413-30.
  4. Huma F et al. Inpatient Management of Tubo-Ovarian Abscesses: What Is the Threshold of Parenteral Antibiotic Treatment Failure? Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 2015
  5. Hayes BD. Trick of the Trade: IV ceftriaxone for gonorrhea. October 9th, 2012 ALiEM. https://www.aliem.com/2012/10/trick-of-trade-iv-ceftriaxone-for/. Accessed October 23, 2018.
  6. Update to CDC's Treatment Guidelines for Gonococcal Infection, 2020 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6950a6.htm
  7. Ness RB et al. Effectiveness of inpatient and outpatient treatment strategies for women with pelvic inflammatory disease: results from the Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) Randomized Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:929–37
  8. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021;70(No. RR-4):1–187. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1external icon
  9. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021;70(No. RR-4):1–187. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1external icon
  10. Ross J, Guaschino S, Cusini M, Jensen J, 2017 European guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease. Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Feb;29(2):108-114. doi: 10.1177/0956462417744099. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
  11. CDC PID Treatment http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/pid.htm
  12. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021;70(No. RR-4):1–187. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1external icon